Serbia

Last update: 1 month ago

The transformation of Serbia since the break-up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s has been very dynamic, to say the least. From a dictatorship heavily involved in the wars in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo bombed by NATO, via a peaceful revolution and democratization, towards a semi-authoritarian regime that has opened the EU accession negotiations in January of 2014. In April 2017, outgoing Prime Minister Alexander Vucic (Serbian Progressive Party) was elected President by obtaining 55.02% of the votes. Consequently, mainly young people took it to the streets in Belgrade to protest against, what they saw, as a move towards a dictatorship in Serbia. 

In 2019, tens of thousands of people demonstrated against the government. Eventually, the majority of opposition parties promised the Serbs to boycott the parliamentary elections if these were observed to be unfair under the “Agreement with the People”. The elections were supposed to be held on the 26th of April 2020, but due to the COVID-19 pandemic it had been postponed to the 21st of June. Keeping their promise, many parties, including the biggest opposition coalition Alliance for Serbia, decided not to partake because they found the current political atmosphere non-democratic. This resulted in a low turnout rate, with less than half of the eligible voters casting their ballots. The Four Our Children coalition, with the leading Serbian Progressive Party, won more than 60% of the votes, equaling to 188 seats. The runner-up was the alliance between the socialist Party of Serbia (SPS), United Serbia (JS) the Communist Party (KP) and the Greens of Serbia (ZS), obtaining 10% of the votes or 32 seats. The Serbian parliament has a total of 250 seats therefore, Four Our Children became the ruling coalition. Ana Brnabic remained the country’s prime minister. 

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Map of Serbia

Short facts

Population:
8,737,371 (2020)
Governmental Type:
Republic
Ruling Coalition:
"For Our Children" - SNS, PUPS, SDPS, SNP, PS, PSS, SPO, NSS, USS
Last Elections:
21 June 2020 (parliamentary elections)
Next Elections:
April 2022 (presidential and parliamentary elections)
Sister Parties:
Democratic Party, (DS), Social Democratic Party (SDS)
Image of Aleksandar Vučić

Aleksandar Vučić

President

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Image of Ana Brnabić

Ana Brnabić

Prime Minister

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Political Situation

Serbian transformation

Hopes were high after the citizens and social movement Otpor (Resistance) toppled the Milošević regime in 2000 without a single bullet being fired. A pro-European Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition took over the power and one of the main parties within that coalition, the centre-left Democratic Party (DS) – remained in power for the most time until 2012. On the one hand, the rule of law, freedom of the press and European integration got a tremendous boost with the downfall of the dictatorship. On the other hand, the country did not manage to develop its economy sufficiently and give hope to the young people who are leaving, while the ruling elite did not manage to change the political culture. In addition, the relations with Kosovo continued to be a political burden. Milošević’s former nationalist political partners used this disappointment to wrap themselves in a European flag and win parliamentary and presidential elections since 2012. Current President Vučić served as minister of information during the Milošević’s regime.

With nationalists back in power the rule of law and democracy regressed. Institutions are weak, not independent and distrusted by the citizens. As a consequence, citizens’ main way to participate in political life is by voting at elections. At the same time, the turn-out at the elections is low: 56 per cent at the 2016 elections and less than 50% in 2020. While the civil society is putting effort to improve the quality of democracy, the government is reluctant to engage in a dialogue with the (civil) society, framing internationally financed civil society as ‘foreign agents’. Investment in active citizenship and knowledge about the political system is lacking while these are important tools to enhance democracy. Media freedom-wise Serbia is moving in the ‘’Macedonia direction’’: total control of the public broadcaster and all other major media by the government. Editors and managers from (formerly) independent media outlets are being fired, or decide to quit their job, some being afraid of verbal and physical attacks on them and their family. In addition, there is no transparency in media ownership.

EU candidate status

In September of 2020, Serbia and Kosovo agreed, with mediation of U.S. President Donald Trump, to work on their economic ties. The accord involved highways and railways to connect the two countries, but political cooperation was sot settled.  

Belgrade and Pristina also signed a historic deal in 2013, mediated by Brussels, normalizing relations, opening their way towards EU integration and granting Serb majority municipalities in Kosovo broad powers in education, health care and spatial planning. The implementation of the deal on the ground remains a major challenge. The agreement had positive effects for Serbia and Kosovo concerning the EU integration. Serbia opened the accession negotiations, while Kosovo signed its first agreement with the EU that lead to the Stabilisation and Association Agreement.

As a result of the breakthrough with Kosovo, the Stabilisation and Association Agreement between the EU and Serbia entered into force in September 2013. Three months later the Council adopted the negotiating framework, wherefore Serbia could hold the first Intergovernmental Conference on 21 January 2014. This date marks the formal start of the accession negotiations. In line with the new EU strategy, chapters 23 (rule of law) and 24 (fundamental rights) were one of the first ones to be opened. The government, however, did not use this opportunity to propagate the reforms related to these chapters as the action plan was adopted quietly in the parliament, with MP’s obtaining the action plan one hour before the vote. Although the perspective of European integration had a big impact on the transformation of Serbian politics, and society to a certain extent, it lacked a long term sustainable approach. Moreover, the ruling elite misused European integration to legitimize all their actions; this “we-have-to-do-this-because-the-EU- says-so" attitude resulted in slow transformation during which the political elite acted like it was not in the interest in Serbia to engage in the European integration-related reforms. The long-term prospect of EU membership is not enough for the political elites in the region to reform. This is also shown by the fact that Serbia is not aligning her foreign affairs policy to the EU’s policies. Also, the government is successfully creating an image of the strong historical, brotherly and spiritual relations between Serbia and Russia. Although the debate about the relations with Russia is blown about of proportions, the ‘love’ for Russia – after Belarus Serbia scores the best when it comes to the popularity of Russia – offers the nationalist political elite an escape card when recognition of Kosovo will be demanded as a prerequisite for EU membership.

Another important instrument in the EU accession process is the Berlin Process. Although it rightfully aims to enhance regional integration and cooperation, it lacks ownership (top-down process), is not transparent and only six EU member states are directly involved.  This problem was not solved when the European Commission presented its new enlargement strategy for the Western Balkans in 2018. Although it raised the prospect of 2025 as the possible accession date of Serbia to the Union, it effectively underlined the necessary steps it will take before the country can become a member. Therefore, many political analysts and journalist are sceptical about the EU integration: as long as Serbia is cooperating on Kosovo, engages in regional cooperation and acts as a stable reliable actor to the EU, it will get EU’s carte blanche on internal politics. Consequently, the quality of democracy has decrease: less free press, weakened rule of law and an increasingly authoritarian regime.

Fragmentation on the left

Since SNS took power in 2012, the Democratic Party (DS) has formed the core of the opposition in Serbia. The party fragmented however as several senior party members left the party. On 30 January 2014 former President of Serbia Boris Tadić resigned as honorary president of the DS. Tadić said he decided to leave because of disagreements with the direction in which the Democrats were heading under the new leadership. DS was at that moment looking for a potential coalition with the New Party (Nova Stranka) led by Zoran Živković, another former member of the DS. After his resignation Tadić started his own party: the New Democratic Party (NDS), later renamed to Social Democratic Party (SDS) Tadic supporter and former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Vuk Jeremić, also created his own political party, the People's Party in 2017, after Tadic left. Mayor of Belgrade and President of the party, Dragan Đilas, also left the party in 2014, after the DS lost its power in the Belgrade City Assembly. Showing his intent to run his own political platform.

With the centre-left vote split between multiple parties and groups, the opposition in Serbia has been heavily divided. The 2018 Belgrade Assembly Elections were seen by many as a test for the opposition if the still could function against the might of the SNS. Leading up to the elections the centre-left couldn’t unite. Đilas platform in the city was supported by the Movement of Free Citizens of former presidential candidate Saša Janković. While another former DS member, Aleksandar Šapić, run his own campaign. The division resulted in a sweeping victory for the SNS in the local elections, receiving 45% of the vote. While the DS didn’t even make it to the threshold of 5% probably because Dilas and Sapic, respectively, won 19% and 9%. On a local and national level the Social Democratic opposition, of what use to be the DS, is now divided among multiple former DS members and their spin-off parties.

Protests unite opposition against the current government  

In late 2018, a series of protests erupted in Serbia, started by angry citizens who are fed up with the authoritarian rule of president Vučić and his SNS party. The protests started in Belgrade but soon spread to other cities in Serbia, and are considered to be one of the longest-running protests in Europe. It was triggered by the assault on opposition politician, Borko Stefanovic, but the underlying anger towards the government was fueled by a wide variety of scandals involving ruling party members, such as sexual harassment cases and a whistleblower who uncovered an arms trade scheme. Apart from these issues, the protest has been centred around the death of Serb politician, Olivier Ivanović, who was murdered in front of his party office in Kosovo. The protests united parts of the country, with opposition members from all over the political spectrum joining forces. As a result, opposition parties from the left and right established the Alliance for Serbia, which is aimed at ousting Vucic and ensure fair and free elections. The Alliance boycotted the 2020 parliamentary elections citing the current conditions for an election as unfair and accusing the ruling Serbian Progressive Party of undemocratic practices. Former members of the European Parliament (MEP), Eduard Kukan and Knut Fleckenstein are currently mediating the dialogue between the Alliance for Serbia and the government lead by Vučić. But still, no agreement between the two sides has been reached, with the protests continuing and reaching participants numbers of over 25.000. 

 

Elections

Parliamentary elections

Apart from 2020, Serbian parliamentary elections are often called early: in 2016 the last parliamentary elections took place, only two years after the parliamentary elections in 2014. They, in turn, were also two years early, as there had been elections in 2012. Prime Minister Vučić called two early parliamentary elections to, as he argues, confirm the support for his reformist agenda. In reality, however, he has mastered the acts of dividing the opposition and cutting off their finances, control of the mainstream media and the election process, and, finding the optimal moment to pull together the resources for yet another election victory.

On 30 January 2014 Serbian President Tomislav Nikolić called early parliamentary elections. According to the president “Serbia shall certainly get a government with more energy and enthusiasm and released from problems that this government has solved”. The coalition government, SNS is the main party, explained its request for early elections by the need to ensure "as wide as possible support for accelerated reforms and modernization of Serbia". However, the fact that SNS was skyrocketing in all polls (above 40 per cent) is considered as the crucial factor for SNS to go to the polls and having its leader Aleksandar Vučić return as Prime Minister, after having been Minister of Defence. On 16 March 2014, the Serbian Progressive Party (SNS) won 48.4 per cent of the seats in parliament. Next to them, only three parties surpassed the threshold of 5 per cent: Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS) 13.5 per cent, Democratic Party (DS) 6 per cent, and the coalition around former President Boris Tadić 5,7 per cent.

In 2016, Vučić stated that the preliminary elections were needed in order to ensure the smooth transition towards the EU and implementation of reform. During the elections, SNS led coalition obtained 48 per cent of the votes, Serbian Socialist Party (SPS) 11 per cent and Serbian Radical Party (SRS) 9 per cent. Just three other parties managed to pass the 5 per cent threshold: DS and It’s Enough Movement obtained 6 per cent while the coalition of Social Democratic Party (Tadić), League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina (LSV, Čanak) and Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) just passed the 5 per cent threshold. After the elections, in a joint statement, leaders of DS, Tadić-coalition and It’s Enough movement stated that the elections were rigged. According to Bojan Pajtić (DS), many cases have been observed in which voters entered the polling stations with a ballot box that was already filled in. They were asked to prove to the ‘activists’ of the ruling SNS who were waiting outside the polling station that they have submitted this ballot by giving them the empty ballot they obtained inside the polling station.

In 2020, less than 50% of those eligible to vote casted their ballots. Not many people had faith in these elections since a lot of factions decided not to partake after they observed the undemocratic atmosphere and controlled media. The winner with 188 and more than 60% of the votes was the For Our Children alliance, with the Serbian Progressive Party as its leader. The alliance of the Socialist Party for Serbia between United Serbia, the Communist Party and the Greens of Serbia came in with 32 seats. The Serbian Patriotic Alliance obtained 11 seats and the Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians received 9. The remaining seats are divided between the Only Right Alliance, Albanian Democratic Alternative together with United Valley and lastly, the Party of Democratic Action of Sanzak. The Serbian parliament has 250 seats in total.


Election results

Party Seats
 Serbian Progressive Party (SNS 158 seats)-led For Our Children Alliance ( Alliance 188 seats)  188
 Socialist Party for Serbia, United Serbia Alliance Communist Party and Greens of Serbia   32
 Serbian Patriotic Alliance   11
 Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians    9
 Justice and Reconciliation Party    4
 Albanian Democratic Alternative and United Valley    3
 Party of Democratic Action of Sandzak    3

 


Presidential elections

On April 2nd 2017, Prime Minister and leader of the right-wing Serbian Progressive Party (SNS), Aleksandar Vucic, won the presidential elections with 55.02% of the vote for a five-year term. Former ombudsman and independent candidate – who was supported by the main opposition Democratic Party (DS) Sasa Jankovic was second with 16.36%, Ljubisa Preletacevic – Beli got 9.43%, the former Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremic received 5.66% of the votes and Vojislav Seseli, who is the leader of the Serbian Radical Party (SRS), got 4.50%. For many people supporting the opposition, the results were disappointing because they had hoped that a second round with the two candidates receiving the most votes would be necessary. Notable about these elections was the participation of Ljubisa Preletacevic, who participated under his alter ego: Beli. He tried to hold a mirror up to the Serbian society by using humour and satire. Mainly young people and people who are disappointed in Serbian politics voted for him as an anti-establishment vote. Current President Tomislav Nikolic from the SNS did not rerun because his party decided to support Vucic instead of him, as they were not confident he could win. According to the Republic, Electoral Commission voter turnout was 54.54%.

Observers

The Centre for Transparency, Research and Accountability (CRTA), did not receive reports on major irregularities. They only noted irregularities in 3% of polling stations. They also noted that electoral commissions sometimes did not check the personal documents of voters, or if they had already cast their ballot. They also sometimes did not mark voter’s fingers with special ink so that they cannot vote again. Finally, they noted that in Zajecar, Knjazevac and Alibunar, police stations were open to urgently issue voters with certificates to show that they had filed requests for new ID cards, this could enable people without valid IDs to vote. The incidents that were reported did not show a trend that could endanger the regularity of the election process.

Aftermath

The week after the elections thousands of Serbs took it to the streets of Belgrade and other cities to protest against Vucic’s victory. The protestors mainly claimed that the election results mark the beginning of a dictatorship. Furthermore, they accuse Vucic’s supporters of having rigged the elections leading to his victory. Especially during the campaign Vucic dominated in the media and had the most resources. The protestors are also calling for the resignation of the Serbian parliamentary speaker, Maja Gojkovic, as they claim she unlawfully prorogued parliamentary during the campaigning period. Lastly, the protestors want that the electoral roll is cleaned up because, according to them, there are over a million ineligible voters on it and they want the public broadcaster to be free from political influence.

Political parties

(Social) Democratic parties

Logo of Democratic Party

Democratic Party (DS)

Party Leader: Yet to be decided

http://www.ds.org.rs

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Logo of Social Democratic Party of Serbia

Social Democratic Party of Serbia (SDPS)

Party Leader: Rasim Ljajic

Number of seats: 8

http://www.sdpsrbije.org.rs

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Other parties

Logo of Serbian Progressive Party

Serbian Progressive Party (SNS)

Party Leader: Aleksandar Vučić

Number of seats: 158

http://www.sns.org.rs

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Logo of Party of United Pensioners of Serbia (Source: http://pups.org.rs)

Party of United Pensioners of Serbia (PUPS)

Party Leader: Milan Krkobabić

Number of seats: 9

https://pups.org.rs

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Logo of Serbian People's Party (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Srpska_narodna_partija_logo.jpg)

Serbian People's Party (SNP)

Party Leader: Nenad Popović

Number of seats: 3

https://srpskanarodnapartija.rs

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Logo of Movement of Socialist (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movement_of_Socialists#/media/File:Movement_of_Socialists_logo.png)

Movement of Socialist (PS)

Party Leader: Aleksandar Vulin

Number of seats: 3

https://https://pokretsocijalista.rs/

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Logo of Serbian Renewal Movement (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Serbian_Renewal_Movement_logo.png)

Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO)

Party Leader: Vuk Drašković

Number of seats: 2

https://www.spo.rs

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Logo of Strength of Serbia Movement (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strength_of_Serbia_Movement#/media/File:Snagasrbije.jpg)

Strength of Serbia Movement (PSS)

Party Leader: Bogoljub Karić

Number of seats: 2

https://www.snagasrbije.com

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Logo of People's Peasant Party (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Narodna_seljacka_stranka_logo.jpg)

People's Peasant Party (NSS)

Party Leader: Marijan Rističević

Number of seats: 1

https://nss.org.rs/

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Logo of United Peasant Party (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Peasant_Party#/media/File:Ujedinjena_Seljacka_Stranka_logo.jpg)

United Peasant Party (USS)

Party Leader: Milija Miletić

Number of seats: 1

https://www.ujedinjenaseljackastranka.rs

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Logo of Socialist Party for Serbia (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_the_Socialist_Party_of_Serbia.svg)

Socialist Party for Serbia (SPS)

Party Leader: Ivica Dačić

Number of seats: 23

https://www.sps.org.rs

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Logo of United Serbia (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:United_Serbia_logo.jpg)

United Serbia (JS)

Party Leader: Dragan Marković Palma

Number of seats: 7

www.jedinstvenasrbija.org.rs

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Logo of Greens of Serbia (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greens_of_Serbia#/media/File:Greens_of_Serbia_logo.png)

Greens of Serbia (ZS)

Party Leader: Ivan Karić

Number of seats: 1

https://www.zelenisrbije.org

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Logo of Communist Party (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_Party_(Serbia)#/media/File:Komunisticka_partija_logo.png)

Communist Party (KP)

Party Leader: Joška Broz

Number of seats: 1

https://www.kp.rs

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Logo of Serbian Patriotic Alliance (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbian_Patriotic_Alliance#/media/File:SPASLogo_novi.png)

Serbian Patriotic Alliance (SPAS)

Party Leader: Aleksandar Šapić

Number of seats: 11

spas-srbija.rs

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Logo of Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alliance_of_Vojvodina_Hungarians#/media/File:Flag_of_the_Alliance_of_Vojvodina_Hungarians.svg)

Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians (VMSZ)

Party Leader: István Pásztor

Number of seats: 9

https://www.vmsz.org.rs

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Logo of Justice and Reconciliation Party (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justice_and_Reconciliation_Party#/media/File:Logo_of_the_Justice_and_Reconciliation_Party.svg)

Justice and Reconciliation Party (SPP)

Party Leader: Muamer Zukorlić

Number of seats: 4

https://http://spp.rs

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Logo of Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Party_of_Democratic_Action_of_Sandžak#/media/File:Sda-logo.png)

Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak (SDA)

Party Leader: Sulejman Ugljanin

Number of seats: 3

https://www.sda.rs

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Logo of Party for Democratic Action (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Party_for_Democratic_Action#/media/File:Partija_za_demokratsko_delovanje_logo.jpg)

Party for Democratic Action (PDD)

Party Leader: Shaip Kamberi

Number of seats: 3

https://www.pvd-pbm.org

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Biographies

Image of Aleksandar Vučić

Aleksandar Vučić

President

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Image of Ana Brnabić

Ana Brnabić

Prime Minister

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Image of Ivica Dačić

Ivica Dačić

Minister of Foreign Affairs and Leader Socialist party of Serbia (SPS) and

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Image of Boris Tadić

Boris Tadić

Leader New Democratic Party (NDS)

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Image of Zoran Lutovac

Zoran Lutovac

Leader of the Democratic Party

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Sources

Country profiles

  • BBC country profile
  • CIA world factbook
  • United Nations – common county assessment

Economy

  • Worldbank reports
  • IMF reports
  • Instute for War and Peace Reporting
  • B92

Elections

  • CeSID
  • Election World.org
  • OSCE/ ODIHR
  • Reuters

European Union

  • European Commission Serbia and Montenegro - Stabilisation and Association Report 2004
  • European Union’s external relation’s with Serbia and Montenegro
  • Euractiv.com
  • EUObserver.com
  • Serbian politics
  • Government
  • Parliament
  • Political parties BBC
  • Election Guide

War Crimes

  • UN International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
  • War Crimes Tribunal Watch
  • Institute for War and Peace Reporting on the Tribunal

News and analysis

  • B92
  • BETA News Agency
  • Civilatas Research
  • Freedom house
  • Institute for war and peace reporting
  • Radio Free Europe – Radio Liberty
  • Transitions Online
  • World Press Review
  • Balkan Times
  • SE Times